legislative titles

Use Rep., Reps., Sen. and Sens. as formal titles before one or more names. Spell out and lowercase representative and senator in other uses.

Spell out other legislative titles in all uses. Capitalize formal titles such as assemblyman, assemblywoman, city councilor, delegate, etc., when they are used before a name. Lowercase in other uses.

Add U.S. or state before a title only if necessary to avoid confusion: U.S. Sen. Nancy Kassebaum spoke with state Ssen. Hugh Carter.

FIRST REFERENCE PRACTICE: The use of a title such as Rep. or Sen. in first reference is normal in most stories. It is not mandatory, however, provided an individual's Title is given later in the story.

Deletion of the title on first reference is frequently appropriate, for example, when an individual has become well known: Barry Goldwater endorsed President Ford today. The Arizona senator said he believes the president deserves another term.

SECOND REFERENCE: Do not use legislative titles before a name on second reference unless thay are part of a direct quotation.

CONGRESSMAN, CONGRESSWOMAN: Rep. and U.S. Rep. are the preferred first reference forms when a formal title is used before the name of a U.S. House member. The words congressman in lowercase, may be used in subsequent references that do not use an individual's name, as as senator is used in references to members of the Senate.

Congressman and congressman should appear as capitalized formal titles before a name only in direct quotation.

ORGANIZATIONAL TITLES: Capitalize titles for formal, organizational offices within a legislative body when they are used before a name: Speaker Thomas P. O'Neil, Majority Leader Robert C. Byrd, Minority Leader John J. Rhodes, Democratic Whip James C. Wright, Chairman John J. Sparkman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, President Pro Tem John C. Stennis.

See party affiliation and titles.